History of the Roma people

Roma history began around 500 CE when they left India and Egypt trying to reach Persia. From the Middle East, the Roma people slowly made their way north and west, reaching Bulgaria around 1100 CE and from there spreading across Europe where most of them were Christianized in contact with the European Christian population. Further studies retraced the Roma's migration path from10th century India across Persia, Greece and central Europe, to Spain in the west, Scandinavia and the British Isles in the north, and also reach in eastern Europe at the beginning of the 16th century.

  1. Around the 16th century faced with unacceptance in Western Europe, Roma were massively deported to the African and American colonies.

  2. Simultaneously largely ignored the Roma people of Europe were registered, sterilized, ghettoized and then deported to concentration and death camps by the Nazis.

  3. The Roma Holocaust is something the wider public is still largely unaware of, as former European

  4. Parliament President, Jerzy Buzek, pointed out in February 2011. Approximately 250,000 to 500,000 Roma were murdered during the Holocaust.

  5. Fighting for theirs rights and for the place in the World the Roma people finally got some recognition.

  6. In 1971 at the first World Romani Congress in London during which the Roma flag and the Roma anthem were adopted, April 8 was declared as an International Roma Day.

  7. The latter was only officially recognized in 1990, during the fourth World Romani Congress in Warsaw. The congress participants decided to replace some terms, such as 'gypsy', which were being widely used in Europe despite their negative connotation, with the term 'Roma'.
     

  8. Culture Roma people as an ethnic group does not exclusively identify with any country because Roma live in the…WORLD.

  9. In different countries stereotyping names as a Gypsies, Gitanos, Cigány are in use but the correct ethnonym is Rom (translated: human).

  10. Even today, the Roma are often viewed with prejudice or suspicion and blamed for bringing poverty or crime into areas. Facing with the high levels of poverty and unemployment and poor education Roma people are struggling with integration in the society.

  11. Source:(http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2018/620201/EPRS_BRI(2018)620201_EN.pdf)

  12. Nevertheless, many Roma have had major impacts on European cultures over the centuries, both genetically and culturally. Traditions like flamenco music in Spain, or street performance in France and Italy trace their roots back to Roma populations.

  13. Romani language as a 'non territorial language' is grammatically very similar to Hindu; however, there are up to twelve distinct dialects that each incorporate vocabulary from other European languages.
    Diversity and geographical distribution Roma people are the major ethnic group. There are an estimated 12 million.

  14. The majority of Roma people (around 6 million) live in Europe, stretching roughly from Spain and France across the Mediterranean and into the Balkans. Roma people have been frequently marginalized and segregate.

  15. Roma is the general name given to a population that includes other groups, such as the Sinti, the Manouche, the Romanichal and the
    Kale, which are scattered all over the world.

  16. Roma people in United States Roma people began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana.

  17. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with
    groups of Romnichal from Britain. There are an estimated 1 million Roma people in the United States but they are still victims of gypsyophobia.

     
            What should be improve?

  18. It is certain that Roma people in USA are still not recognize as an ethnicity.

  19. There are no actions against the hate speech targeting Roma, which is a manifestation of the widespread antigypsyism.

  20. Most of the Americans know about Gypsy, but not as a real ethnic
    group, more as a way of behavior or a lifestyle. Discrimination is still a substantial burden in the USA, especially when it comes to the workplace, Roma are identifying as a fortune teller, non-workers and dancers.

  21. Education, integration and unemployment are still the
    major obstacles for the Roma population in United States. It is a moment to reflect on and
    take action to recognize the Roma ethnicity and to improve the process of integration.

  22. Among the European Union Countries Romani language is recognized as a minority language in Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.
     

  23. In Europe the status of Roma people is constantly improving and this territory can be used as a role model for taking some actions for addressing Roma question in USA. Roma issues has been recognized on European Union governmental level and many projects and actions has been implemented, such as:

  • The Decade of Roma Inclusion which was an initiative of 12 European countries
    to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of the Roma people
    across the region. The initiative was launched in 2005, with the project running
    from 2005 to 2015, and was the first multinational project in Europe to actively enhance the lives of Roma.

  • On 25 October 2017, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on fighting

    anti-Gypsyism and stressed the fundamental rights aspects in Roma integration
    and the need to provide education on Roma history and cultural diversity. A year
    earlier, among a long series of resolutions on Roma inclusion and integration on the occasion of International Roma Day, the EP adopted another resolution on anti-Gypsyism and called for EU recognition of the Roma Holocaust and its commemoration on 2 August.

  • In 2015, on International Romani Language Day (5th November), the Committee of Experts of the ECRML adopted a statement calling for better protection and promotion of the language, particularly in education and cultural life, bringing attention to the vulnerability of Romani as a result of its transitional situation.
    Romani has undergone a major change from being solely an oral tradition for private use, to being standardized in written form and used formally in public.

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